Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Strong

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SheRu
Go John Henry!
2012/05/04 15:40:15 (permalink)
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Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Strong

http://www.charlespoliquin.com/Blog/tabid/130/EntryId/1187/Tip-341-Manipulate-Time-Under-Tension-To-Lose-Fat-and-Get-Stronger.aspx 
 
 Manipulate the amount of time your muscles spend under tension to lose fat and get stronger. Time under tension is one of the best tools to help you reach your goals. Altering the time under tension or tempo of your training exercises can help you break through strength plateaus, lose extra fat, and increase vertical jump.

Recent studies reinforce the  value of tempo training, and the newest one in the journal of Applied, Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism compared the effect of three different lifting tempos on energy expenditure and excess post exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC). The subjects were trained men who were assigned to perform a workout of 3 sets of 5 reps at 70 percent of the 1RM in the bench press using one of the three following lifting cadences: 1.5 seconds up and down, 4 seconds down and 1 second up, or 1 second down and 4 seconds up. Presumably, there were no pauses in between the concentric and eccentric phases since nothing is mentioned in the study. 

Results showed that the 1.5 second temp, which took a total of 15 seconds per set, required the least energy expenditure and EPOC was significantly less than with the other two tempos that each took 25 seconds per set. This is not surprising since the participants spent more time under the weight, but it reminds us that a simple way to burn more energy during and after working out is to mix up tempo.

Take note that greater EPOC means metabolism is elevated to a significant degree after the exercise bout. EPOC is elevated much more after exercise that uses the anaerobic than the aerobic energy system, indicating that altering training tempo is an easy way to train the anaerobic system for sports that require shorter bursts of activity.

Varying the eccentric and concentric phases is the basis for my German Body Comp program that enables you to take precise control of the training stimulus to achieve dramatic fat loss. The magic of tempo training extends beyond simply helping you lose fat and burn more energy. Power athletes can alter time under tension to improve performance by including ballistic contractions such as Olympic lifts, squat jumps, or bench throws to bring about more central nervous system adaptations. 
Read more about varying tempo with my Top Five Reasons to Vary Tempo In Your Workout.
 
Reference: 
Scott, Christopher. The Effect of Time Under Tension and Weight Lifting Cadence on aerobic, Anaerobic, and Recovery Energy expenditures. Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism. 2012. 37(2), 252-256. <http://www.nrcresearchpress.com/doi/abs/10.1139/h11-158>  of <http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed?term=The%20effect%20of%20time-under-tension%20and%20weight%20lifting%20cadence%20on%20aerobic%2C%20anaerobic%2C%20and%20recovery%20energy%20
 
 
Abstract originele onderzoek: 
We examined the aerobic and anaerobic energy expenditures of weight lifting (bench press); submaximal work was kept constant among protocols. Ten male subjects (age, 23.2 ± 3.1 years; height, 177.3 ± 5.3 cm; weight, 82.1 ± 11.5 kg) were randomly assigned to 3 lifting sessions of 3 sets of 5 repetitions at 70% 1 repetition maximum (1RM) using 3 liftingcadences: 1.5 s down and 1.5 s up (15 s per set), 4 s down and 1 s up (25 s per set), and 1 s down and 4 s up (25 s per set). No differences were found among the aerobic exercise energy expenditures for each lifting cadence. However, anaerobicenergy expenditure was significantly different among protocols: 1.5 down-1.5 up, 16.5 ± 8.1 kJ; 4 down-1 up, 21.6 ± 8.1 kJ; and 1 down-4 up, 26.7 ± 7.2 kJ (p = 0.001). Excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; after each set) was lower for 1.5 down-1.5 up, 38.6 ± 17.8 kJ; versus 4 down-1 up, 50.2 ± 23.5 kJ; and 1 down-4 up, 50.0 ± 22.6 kJ (p = 0.002). Totalenergy expenditure also was significantly less for 1.5 up-1.5 down, 60.2 ± 23.8 kJ; versus 4 down-1 up, 80.0 ± 27.7 kJ; and 1 down-4 up, 84.2 ± 28.3 kJ (p = 0.001). Differences in EPOC and total energy expenditure with submaximal lifting were based not on the amount of work performed or with a particular eccentric-concentric cadence, but on the time to completion of the weight lifting exercise - time-under-tension; longer submaximal lifting times had greater energy expenditure.
 
post edited by SheRu - 2012/05/04 15:42:54
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15 Replies Related Threads

    3XL
    Senior Moderator
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/04 19:30:45 (permalink)
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    Eerlijk gezegd zegt TUT op zich me niets. Je kan dezelfde TUT op diverse manieren invullen wat de uitkomst kan veranderen. bv een rep van 1-0-4-0 duurt net zo lang als een rep van 4-0-1-0 (neg-verkort-pos-oplengte) mar ik denk dat de meesten wel zullen beamen dat en lange neg. fase meestal een adner effect heeft dan een langzame pos. fase.
     
    Wat dat betreft geeft ik Staley gelijk
     
    Before I go into my thoughts on TUT, I want to point out something that you may be unaware of: YOU'RE OVERTHINKING THINGS. You really are, and the reason I know is I've been there myself. I've endlessly studied every training nuance you can imagine— post-tetanic facilitation, rate coding, upward versus downward motor unit recruitment, shunt versus spurt muscles, believe me, I can go on and on. When everyone else was talking about TUT, I was carefully analyzing INTRA-REP speed variations.

    But the funny thing is, when I looked at very successful athletes and coaches, none of them seemed to worry about any of this stuff! They just trained their ass off and left the tech stuff to the science-geeks.

    Now I AM being just a bit facetious. It never hurts to know your stuff. But some of us (and that means YOU) tend to overthink things a bit. Sure, learn everything you can, but none of it means a think if you don't work hard in the gym on a consistent basis.

    Now, with that being said, let's explore this concept of "Time Under Tension:"

    For those of you who aren't familiar with this concept, it was first popularized in North America by a now well-known strength coach in Muscle Media 2000 magazine about 6 years ago 
    [edit 3XL: Poliquin]. This author suggests monitoring the actual time that a muscle is "under tension" during an exercise by using a clock or stopwatch, and recording this parameter in the training log via a numerical system first used by Australian strength coach Ian King. An example of this system might look like this:

    5/2/2

    Which indicates that the weight is lowered for 5 seconds, paused for 2, and finally lifted over a duration of 2 seconds.

    It was further suggested that an exercise's TUT should be periodically (perhaps every 3 weeks) varied as a way of respecting the principle of variation. And, many people began to make renewed progress in their training when they started to monitor and vary their TUT, and soon the concept became very popular.

    Most people's confusion regarding TUT stems from Poliquin's assertion that for optimal muscle growth, a muscle should be under tension for between 40 and 70 seconds on any given set. The problem with this idea is that when you look around at some of the most muscular athletes in the World of sport- namely Olympic weightlifters and powerlifters, you'll find that the average number of reps per set is 2-3, and the total TUT for any set is around 10-12 seconds. It should also be kept in mind that the total TUT for the workout may be far more telling than the TUT for any given set. Therefore, one might rack up only 10 seconds of TUT for each set, but if numerous sets are performed, the TUT for the workout remains high nevertheless.

    Why has the notion of TUT become so popular? I think in large part because when exercisers began to regulate TUT in their workouts, it simply made them work harder! In other words, it slowed them down, which in many instances helps to create better awareness of proper lifting technique, and eliminates the presence of momentum during the exercise (momentum isn't necessarily a bad thing incidentally; it's just that most lifter's don't know how to apply compensatory acceleration— a subject for a future quick tips).

    If you'd like to monitor TUT in your own training, the easiest way is to buy a small electric metronome at a music store— the kind that can emit an 
    auditory click every second. This way, you won't need to watch a clock as you lift to monitor TUT. I think you'll find that slowing things down can create a new awareness of your lifting technique, and it certainly can make you work harder. 

    It also tends to improve your eccentric strength, which can have multiple benefits in terms of overall strength and muscle growth. Monitoring TUT is also a valid idea in terms of keeping tabs on exactly what is happening during your workouts— not just sets, reps, and rest periods, but lifting speed as well. The more exacting you are in monitoring training parameters, the better equipped you'll be in knowing exactly what works and what doesn't.

    Now, another thought for you: A rarely discussed aspect of "time under tension" is intra-rep speed fluctuations. In other words, when you perform the eccentric phase of a squat, should the speed be constant throughout the entire range of motion, or could there be advantages to varying the speed as the weight is lowered?

    While many possibilities exist, my "rule of thumb" recommendations are as follows:

    Eccentric speed fluctuations: Using the squat as an example, the lower you go, the weaker and more vulnerable you are, due to compromised leverages. Therefore, begin the descent relatively quickly, and begin to slow down as you near the bottom position. This is done for the following reasons. First, if the bar speed is relatively slow throughout the entire eccentric phase, you'll become fatigued which will impair your ability to lift the weight in a forceful manner. 
    Second, if the bar speed is great toward the end of the eccentric phase, it'll require enormous force to reverse the accumulated momentum of the bar. The solution is found by beginning the descent relatively fast, and ending it relatively slowly.

    Concentric speed fluctuations: It is a waste of energy to try to move a weight quickly when you are in a position of poor leverage. Using the deadlift as an example, in the early stages of the concentric phase, your hips and knees are flexed significantly, which means that your leverage is poor. Therefore, there is no point in trying to "explode" the bar from the floor. It is more appropriate to "squeeze" the weight from the floor. However, once the bar reaches approximately knee level, the weight can be accelerated because the hips and knees are more extended, which creates better levers.

    Static/dynamic protocols: Another example of intra-rep speed fluctuations can be seen in the little-used, but highly effective technique of static/dynamic training. In this method, one might (for example) begin to curl a barbell, and then stop one-third of the way up for five seconds, then continue to two-thirds, pausing for an additional five seconds before completing the concentric portion of the curl. The same procedure may be used during the eccentric phase of the exercise.

    Another variant of static/dynamic training is to use a prolonged (e.g, 10 seconds) eccentric phase, followed by a similarly prolonged pause, followed by a small number (3-5) of rapid full-range repetitions. For example, on the bench press exercise, one could lower the bar for 10 seconds, hold it tightly at chest level for 10 seconds, and then perform 3 rapid repetitions before terminating the set. The contrast between the static and dynamic work is a powerful stimulus for the nervous system, and can be very effective both for plateau-breaking and for overall strength development.

    Static/dynamic training is particularly effective with exercises which have very short range of motion, such as curls and calf raises, and also for situations where you wish to strengthen a particular "slice" of an exercises range of motion.

     
    #2
    SheRu
    Go John Henry!
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/04 19:49:35 (permalink)
    0
    3XL

    Eerlijk gezegd zegt TUT op zich me niets. Je kan dezelfde TUT op diverse manieren invullen wat de uitkomst kan veranderen. bv een rep van 1-0-4-0 duurt net zo lang als een rep van 4-0-1-0 (neg-verkort-pos-oplengte) mar ik denk dat de meesten wel zullen beamen dat en lange neg. fase meestal een adner effect heeft dan een langzame pos. fase.

    Naja, volgens mij staat in 't bovenstaande onderzoek dat 't verschil qua epoc in die repranges niet zoveel uitmaakt. 
     
    Ik zeg er wel meteen bij dat ik reptempo's helemaal niks vind. Tijdens Extended Tension was het leuk om mee te spelen, TUT, zeker qua vetverbranding, maar had de indruk dat 't krachtverlies opleverde. Niettemin wel interessant om de  verschillende experts erover te lezen, wat mijn voornaamste doel is met de  draad. knipoog 
    #3
    3XL
    Senior Moderator
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/04 20:16:01 (permalink)
    0
    Waar het mij omgaat is dat er te vaak geschermd wordt met de term TUT en dat het er vaak op neer komt dat je een spier .....sec onder spanning moet houden zonder rekening te houden met de invulling van de TUT op zich
     
    Bij de ..-0-..-0 varianten gaat het nog wel omdat alleen de ecc. en conc. fase gerekend worden, maar soms zie ik dat bij ..-..-..-.. varianten de "pauzes" ook mee gerekend worden.
    #4
    SheRu
    Go John Henry!
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/04 20:26:08 (permalink)
    0
    Daar ben ik het ook zeker mee eens. 
    #5
    Marcus
    Natural born chiller
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/04 21:00:19 (permalink)
    0
    Snap niet zo goed waarom Poliquin onderzoeksresultaten gebruikt als koren op zijn molen, want zie niet hoe ze echt aansluiten bij wat hij beweert. En zo opzienbarend zijn de resultaten ook niet IMO:
    - Je doet ongeveer 1,3x zoveel werk (vergelijk total energy expenditure) en...stop-de-persen...EPOC is ook ongeveer 1,3x zo groot
    - hoger TUT belast anearobe energie systeem relatief meer (1,3x zoveel werk resulteert in 1,6x zoveel belasing anearobe energiesysteem). Ga er even vanuit dat ze met anaerobic energy expenditure specifiek praten over lactische anearobe processen (versus alactisch).
    In dat geval ook niet heel verrassend want illustreert alleen maar dat er ergens tussen de 0 en de 25sec een switch plaats vindt van alactisch anearoob naar lactisch anearoob. Dus hoger TUT betekent meer tijd in dat alactische systeem. Maar of dat een voordeel is....?
     
    Enige verrassende wat resultaten suggereren is dat je anearobe energiesysteem energie-efficienter schijnt om te gaan met eccentrische fase van reps dan met concentrische fase (getuige de anaerobic energy expenditure verschillen tussen 4up/1down en 1up/4down).
    Maar dat resultaat is hoogstwaarschijnlijk statistisch niet significant gezien de overlappende betrouwbaarheidsintervallen. Voor de betrouwbaarheidsintervallen is wel een opvallend kleine p-waarde gekozen trouwens (ze halveren ongeveer schat ik bij een normalere p-waarde als p=0.05).
    Ow en ook apart is dat je zou zeggen dat 25sec sets ongeveer 1,7x zoveel energie kosten als 15sec sets, maar het is maar 1,3x zoveel. Blijkbaar wordt je efficienter als je TUT groter wordt. Dat of het is volledig te verklaren vanuit de redelijk grote betrouwbaarheidsintervallen om de gemeten waardes heen.
    Maar als dat statistisch significant blijkt te zijn is dat eerder een argument voor lagere TUT per set of per training en dan meer trainingen. Wat zo'n beetje het tegenovergestelde is van wat ik begrijp dat Poliquin beweert.
    post edited by Marcus - 2012/05/04 21:15:32
    #6
    SheRu
    Go John Henry!
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/05 10:00:13 (permalink)
    0
    Kan dat lactische systeem niet te maken hebben met de daarmee geassocieerde hogere vetverbranding (las van DAve Tate ook wel 's dat er artsen waren die dat vermoedden)? 
    #7
    3XL
    Senior Moderator
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/05 14:51:48 (permalink)
    0
    Meer lactaat => meer gh => meer vetverbruik
    #8
    SheRu
    Go John Henry!
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/05 14:59:42 (permalink)
    0
    En dat pyruvate wat ik tegen kwam, zit dat in een voorstadium van GH of er na? Of heb ik een bel horen luiden maar weet ik niet wat een klepel is? super blij 
    #9
    Marcus
    Natural born chiller
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/05 16:55:40 (permalink)
    0
    @SheRu
    Als glucose verbrand wordt ondergaat het eerst een proces dat glucolyse heet. Dit proces levert pyruvate (pyrodruivenzuur) op.
    Dit is een centrale stof in een aantal metabole processen.
    Zo kan het direct de citroenzuurcyclus in om verder afgebroken te worden tot koolstofdioxide en water. Ook kunnen andere stoffen dan glucose omgezet worden tot pyruvate.
    En pyruvate kan ook weer terug omgezet worden in glucose.
     
    De eerste stap in de citroenzuurcyclus is de vorming van lactaat (melkzuur) uit pyruvate.
     
    De relatie tussen lactaat en GH (groeihormoon) is niet een omzetting, maar lactaat zou de afgifte van GH stimuleren.
    edit:
    gok dat je dit juni uit je hoofd moet weten inclusief hoeveel ATP/ADP, NAD+/NADH de processen opleveren super blij
    post edited by Marcus - 2012/05/05 17:00:24
    #10
    SheRu
    Go John Henry!
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/05 17:59:54 (permalink)
    0
    Ja, goed gegokt! super blij 
    Maar ik mag dus braaf dat hoofdstuk gaan reviewen. super blij 
    post edited by SheRu - 2012/05/05 18:31:20
    #11
    SheRu
    Go John Henry!
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/05 18:55:25 (permalink)
    0
    En zag dat er ook liedjes over zijn, dus er is nog hoop.  
    #12
    Marcus
    Natural born chiller
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/05 19:17:34 (permalink)
    0
    LOL inderdaad ja!
     
    #13
    SheRu
    Go John Henry!
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/05 19:24:10 (permalink)
    +1 (1)
    Hoewel de kwaliteit van de liedjes weer matig is... 
     
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=juM2ROSLWfw Dit werkte beter. 
     
     
    #14
    Marcus
    Natural born chiller
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2012/05/05 19:54:19 (permalink)
    +1 (1)
    Yep, Khan Academy rules!
    Gaat niet over biochemie, maar vond deze liedjes ook wel lachen:
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BoDbAzGCg8g
    http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLEIHrbv71k
    #15
    suzane
    Feather Weight
    Re:Tip 341: Manipulate Time Under Tension To Lose Fat and Get Str 2013/08/20 10:03:57 (permalink)
    0
    Manipulate the amount of time your muscles spend under tension to lose fat and get stronger. Time under tension is one of the best tools to help you reach your goals. Altering the time under tension or tempo of your training exercises can help you break through strength plateaus, lose extra fat, and increase vertical jump
    #16
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